After the Neolithic era, invasion by Celtic (“Goidals”) followed by Brythons and Belgae (i.e. in Bronze And Iron Ages).And Iron Ages). From
2500 B.C.
Hunter/gatherers visit the Trellech ridge (stone axe-head and arrow heads found in Penallt) with eventual settlements farming on high ground.
Roman occupation 47- 380
Possible strong point above the Wye – massive, well-dressed stone retaining walls above the Boat Inn.
Caerleon founded 75 A.D.  
Celtic Christianity established including Llandaff (major see) 6th
(No parishes centred on church buildings.
Spread of the Celtic Church 6th/7th
Possible hermitage near the well at site of Penallt Old Church.
Saxon raids in force into South Wales from England effectively cutting Wales off
from Cornwall and Strathclyde.
Offa built his dyke 785 Penallt on the Celtic west side, Saxons on the east.
Danes raiding from the coast as far north as Archenfield 915 Proximity of the Wye a menace.
Chepstow Benedictine priory founded. 1060 “Mother church” to Penallt and Trellech, itself the daughter of Cormeilles.
WILLIAM I (1066-1087)
Norman invasion. Parish boundaries become administrative boundaries
Celtic Church “reorganised” and gradually brought under Norman control.
  c.1070 Trellech (including Penallt) a Royal Manor in the Lordship of Usk.
  c.1150 Lordship passed to the de Clare family.
A time of continuing struggle between the Celtic and the Noman (Roman) Churches 1190 Appendix to the Book of Llandaff includes Penallt by name as paying church taxes.
JOHN (1199-1216) 1215 Magna Carta recognises de facto independence of Wales with Marcher Barons appointed by the Crown
  Mid 13th
De Clares credited with building Penallt’s first stone church, although not by all.
  1254 Penallt’s
first recorded vicar (shared with Trellech).
HENRY III (1216 – 1272) 1272 “First historical record of a church in in Penallt” says the Rev. du Heaume in 1940 referring perhaps to the Norwich taxation papers which list the village as “Penathlan.”
EDWARD I (1272-1307)

English campaign to subjugate Wales

1276-1284 Intermittent destruction in South Wales
  1291 Trellech and New Mills sacked by Earl of Norfolk for deer-poaching.
EDWARD II (1307 – 1327)    
EDWARD III (1327 – 1377)    
Black Death epidemics; Famine between and after 1348 – 1361 Penallt thought to have lost up to 50% of population.
RICHARD II (1377 – 1399)    
Desperate Welsh uprisings From
HENRY 1V (1399 – 1413) 1404 Owen Glyndwr at Craig-y-Dorth (further depredation of Penallt thereafter virtually abandoned)
HENRY V (1413 – 1422)    
HENRY VI (1422 – 1461)    
EDWARD IV (1461 – 1483)    
Wars of the Roses 1455-1485  
RICHARD III (1483 – 1485)

HENRY VII (1485-1509)

  Relative peace saw Penallt building a rural community of farmers, craftsmen and traders and rebuilding the parish church of which the tower, north wall and
perhaps the chancel arch only left standing.
HENRY VIII (1509-1547)    
Dissolution of the Monasteries 1534-1540  
Act of Union: England and Wales 1536 Monmouthshire detached from Wales and given 2 M.P.s at Westminster. Avowdson of Penallt
passed permanently from Chepstow Priory to the Crown.
“The Great Bible” (in English) introduced into all churches 1539 This date carved into the door of Penallt parish church.
EDWARD VI (1547 – 1553)    
MARY (1553 – 1558)    
ELIZABETH I (1558 – 1603) 1580 Sir Christopher Probert build the Argoed.
  1581 1140 acres of Wye’s Wood (Devauden to Monmouth) opened as common land offering
fuel, pasture and lime for the soil. Metals industries in Redbrook started
JAMES I (1603 – 1625)    
CHARLES 1 (1625 – 1649)    
Civil Wars. Puritan destruction compounded earlier iconoclastic damage 1642-1649 Monmouthshire evading both sides with varying success.
Cromwell (1649 – 1660) 1660 Argoed rebuilt by Sir George Probert
CHARLES II (1660-1685) 1662 The first of the bells hung in Penallt church.
  1677 Trellech and Penallt listed by lawyers as separate parishes in a survey of Trellech manor.
JAMES II (1685 – 1688)    
WILLIAM & MARY (1689 – 1702) 1689 Vicar Babington endowed schools in Trellech and Penallt.
QUEEN ANNE (1702-1714)   Royal Arms presented to Penallt Church (Crown holding the avowdson). Some random enclosures.
Rioting and law-suits.
  1713 Further 245 acres released as common land within the manor.
GEORGE I (1714 – 1727)   Box pews and galleries crowded into Penallt church.
GEORGE II (1727 – 1760) 1748 Cottage built at Pwll Du (later Moorcroft)
GEORGE III (1760 – 1820) 1761 First paper mill at Whitebrook.
  1771 Tinplate production at Redbrook.
  1774 Duke of Beaufort bought Trellech manor.
Napoleonic Wars 1797-1815  
  1809 Plans for a tram-road from Redbrook to Pwll Du aborted.
National Enclosure Acts 1810 Local enclosure gathered pace.
GEORGE IV (1820 – 1830) c.1820 Penallt Baptist Chapel built.
WILLIAM IV (1830 – 1837) 1834 Penallt School built at Pentwyn.
VICTORIA (1837-1901) 1844 Tithe Commutation Survey of Penallt.
  1847 Detailed map with ownership published.
  1853 Snakescroft (later Moorcroft) built by Curate Oakley.
  c.1864 Wesleyan and Primitive Methodist
    chapels built.
  1865 Richard Potter bought the Argoed.
  1868 St. Mary’s, Pentwyn built.
  1875/76 Railway comes to Penallt: bridge at The Boat.
  1886 Major repairs and renovations at Penallt Old Church. Box pews and galleries removed
  1887 Parishes of Trellech and Penallt separated.
  1888 Last mill at Whitebrook closes. Penallt’s Vicar housed in new-built Vicarage.

First parish magazine

Cricket club founded at Moorcroft

  1889 Tennis club founded.

Emigration to USA from Penallt continues following poor harvests and general agricultural decline.

  1891 Eight weeks (January/February) continuous snow and ice – much hardship – scarlet fever and measles epidemics.
  1900 Sales of Crown land in the district
  1901/2 Beaufort land sold off piecemeal.
EDWARD VII (1901 – 1910)    
GEORGE V (1910 – 1936) 1913 Argoed first to get a telephone.
First World War 1914-1918 Absence and loss of men. Penallt families dispersed.
Disestablished Church in Wales founded. 1920 Penallt opted in: Dixton opted out.
  1921 War Memorial at Pentwyn.
  1923 First Pelham Hall erected. The Society of the Sacred Cross came to Ty Mawr House, Lydart
GEORGE VI (1936-1952)    
Second World War 1939-1945 Influx of evacuees, some settling for good
  1946-1966 Extensive repairs and alterations to Penallt Parish Church.
ELIZABETH II (1953- ) 1954/5 Mains water arrived in Penallt.
  1955/7 Electricity arrived.
  1960 Refuse collection began.
  1965 Medieval stone altar retrieved and set up in the parish church.
Monmouthshire made part of Wales“for administrative purposes” by Prime Minister Heath. 1974  
  1987 Penallt School closed.
  1986-1990 Renovation programme for church and churchyard.
  1990 New cricket ground inaugurated.
  1993 Replacement Pelham Hall opened.
Welsh Assembly created. 1999  
  2003 St. Mary’s, Pentwyn closed.
  2007 Merger of Penallt and Trellech parishes.

[from: Penallt Revisited]